乐投英超

HAOSHIXINNENGYUANWEININJIEDUCHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUNJIGUANGXIUZHENGJISHUDEYUANLI、TEDIANJIFAZHAN

发布时间:2016-09-01 11:29:48
0 前言

超硬磨料引入磨削工业使零件的加工效率和加工质量明显改善的同时, 还延长了砂轮寿命, 提高了加工零件的尺寸稳定性。采用金刚石和CBN磨料的高效深切磨削、超高速磨削和快速点磨不仅实现了高效率和高表面完整性加工,而且还能得到精确的尺寸,特别是对硬、脆材料实现延性域无损伤加工。在难加工材料的精密磨削和高速磨削中,树脂结合剂和金属结合剂超硬磨料砂轮的大量应用使砂轮的修整问题变得日益尖锐。就砂轮的修锐而言,磨料研磨法、普通砂轮磨削法和磨削软钢法等传统方法存在修锐效率低、修锐成本高、修锐次数频繁和操作环境恶劣等明显缺点,为了充分发挥超硬磨料砂轮的性能,研究开发高效和高精度超硬磨料砂轮的修整技术意义非常重大。主要进展表现在,一方面对传统的修锐方法进行改进,开发了杯形砂轮磨削法、游离磨料喷射法和弹性超声修锐法等;另一方面,将电化学加工和电火花加工等特种加工方法引入砂轮修锐,开发出了电火花修锐、双电极接触放电修锐和在线电解修锐等技术。这些技术在实际中得到应用,但同时也存在缺点。如采用磨削法修锐时修锐工具消耗很快, 会引起超硬磨粒的机械损伤;电加工修锐要受到砂轮导电性能的限制,且对磨削液有特殊要求等。


1 超硬磨料砂轮的修整概述

超硬磨料磨具的结合剂类型对它的修整和磨削性能有较大的影响,目前主要划分为树脂、陶瓷和金属结合剂等几大类型。树脂、陶瓷结合剂强度较低,修整相对容易,但对磨粒的把持力较低,不能有效发挥磨粒超硬、耐磨的特点。金属结合剂的强度高、韧性好,但把持力太强,使砂轮修整极为困难,加工中容易出现砂轮堵塞和被加工表面烧伤等问题。超硬磨料砂轮具有优良的磨削性能,抗磨损能力强,不需要经常修整,但在初始安装和使用磨钝后需要修整。超硬磨料砂轮的修整分为整形和修锐两个工序,整形是对砂轮进行微量切削,使砂轮达到所要求的几何形状精度,并使磨料尖端细微破碎,形成锋利磨刃。修锐是去除磨粒间的结合剂,使磨粒间有一定的容屑空间,并使磨刃突出结合剂之外形成切削刃。由于具体方法的不同,这两个过程可以统一进行,也可以分别处理。


1.1 超硬磨料砂轮的整形法


乐投英超CHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUNDEZHENGXINGYIBANYUPUTONGMOLIAOSHALUNZHENGXINGFANGFAXIANGTONG,ZUICHANGYONGDEZHENGXINGFANGFAWEIJINGANGSHIBIZHENGXINGHEJINGANGSHIGUNLUNZHENGXING。


1.2 超硬磨料砂轮的修锐法


CHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUNDEXIURUIYAODADAOYIXIAYAOQIU:


乐投英超1、QUCHUSHALUNBIAOMIANDEJIEHEJICAILIAO, SHIMOLITUCHUSHALUNBIAOMIANXINGCHENGQIEXUEDIAN;


2、ZAISHALUNBIAOMIANMOLIZHIJIANXINGCHENGRONGXIEKONGJIAN;


3、MOLIZAIJIEHEJIZHONGDEZHANJIESHENDUDADAOYAOQIU,SHIMOLIZAIQIEXUESHIYOULAOGUDEBACHILIERBUTUOLUO。


乐投英超(1) ZAIXIANDIANJIEXIURUIFA


乐投英超ZAIXIANDIANJIEXIURUIXITONGZHUYAOYOUJINSHUJIEHEJIDECHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUN、DIANJI(SHIMOHUOHUANGTONGZHICHENG)、DIANYUANHEDIANJIEYEZUCHENG(JIANTU1),JINSHUJIEHEJITONGGUODIANSHUAYUDIANYUANDEZHENGJILIANJIE,DIANJIYUDIANYUANDEFUJIXIANGLIAN,DIANJIFUGAI1/6SHALUNYUANZHOUBINGQIEBISHALUNKUAN2mm,DIANJIYUSHALUNJIANXIKEDIAO,YIBANWEI0.11~0.13mm,DANGZAISHALUNYUDIANJIZHIJIANZHURUDIANJIEYEBINGJIETONGDIANYUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIUFASHENGDIANJIEFANYING。


乐投英超ZAIXIANDIANJIEXIURUIFASHIZHUANMENYINGYONGYUJINSHUJIEHEJISHALUNDEXIUZHENGFANGFA,JUYOUXIUZHENGXIAOLVGAO、GONGYIGUOCHENGJIANDAN,XIURUIZHILIANGHAODENGTEDIAN。DANZHEIZHONGJISHUZHINENGXIURUI,BUNENGZHENGXING;QIEDIANJIEYEDUIMOCHUANGYOUFUSHIZUOYONG。


1 在线电解修整简图

乐投英超(2) ZAIXIANDIANHUOHUAFANGDIANXIURUIFA:


ZAIXIANDIANHUOHUAFANGDIANXIURUIFASHIZAIMOXUEGUOCHENGZHONG, DIANJIHEJINSHUJIEHEJIZHIJIANCHANSHENGHUOHUAFANGDIAN,FANGDIANCHANSHENGDENENGLIANGSHIDIANJIHEJINSHUJIEHEJIFASHENGSHAOSUN,SHALUNZHONGJINSHUJIEHEJIZAIFANGDIANLEIJIQINSHIZUOYONGXIATUOLISHALUNBIAOMIAN,CONGERDADAOXIURUIDEMUDE。RUTU2SUOSHI。


乐投英超LIYONGDIANHUOHUAXIURUIJISHUKEDUIRENHEYIDAODIANCAILIAOZUOWEIJIEHEJIDESHALUNJINXINGZAIXIAN、ZAIWEIXIUZHENG,YIYUBAOZHENGMOXUEJINGDU。DANZHEIZHONGXIURUIFANGFAZAICHAOWEIXILIDUSHALUNFANGMIANYIZHIMEIYOUHUODEGUANGFANYINGYONG,QIXIURUIJILIYOUDAIJINYIBUJINXINGFENXIYANJIU。

2 在线电火花放电修锐法

(3) RUANDANXINGXIURUIFA:


乐投英超RUANDANXINGXIURUIFA(TU3)SHIJIEZHUYUSHADAIMOXUEYUANLIJINXINGDE, ZAIXIUZHENGGUOCHENGZHONG, CHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUNGAOSUXUANZHUAN, ERSHADAIYIDISUYUNDONG, YOUYUSHADAISHIYOURUANZHIJITIZHICHENG, TAHECHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUNDANXINGJIECHU, CONGERQUCHUJIEHEJIBINGSHIMOLIWEIPOSUIXINGCHENGQIEXUEREN。

3软弹性修锐法装置简图

(4) YOULIMOLIXIURUIFA:


YOULIMOLIXIURUIFASHITONGGUODUIYOULIMOLISHIJIAYIDINGYALIDUIJIEHEJICAILIAOJINXINGQUCHUJIAGONGERDADAOXIURUIDEMUDE。


YIZHONGSHICHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUNJINZAIYOUYUPUTONGMOLIAOHUNHEDERONGQINEI, XIURUIPANYAZAISHALUNBIAOMIAN, YOULIMOLIZHANZAISHALUNBIAOMIANBINGZAISHALUNDAIDONGXIAJINRUXIURUIPANYUSHALUNZHIJIAN, YOULIMOLIZAIXIURUIPANYALIZUOYONGXIAYARUSHALUNBIAOMIAN, SUIZHESHALUNXUANZHUAN, YOULIMOLIWACHUSHALUNBIAOMIANDEJIEHEJICAILIAO, SHICBNHUOJINGANGSHIMOLITUCHUSHALUNBIAOMIAN, DADAOXIURUIDEMUDE。


LINGYIZHONGYOULIMOLIXIURUIFASHILIYONGYALIJIANGPUTONGMOLIAOZHUSHEDAOSHALUNYUXIUZHENGLUNZHIJIAN, YOULIMOLIZAISHALUNYUXIUZHENGLUNZHIJIANDEWEIXIAOJIANXINEIGUNYA, CONGERQUCHUSHALUNBIAOMIANJIEHEJICAILIAO,SHISHALUNMOLILUCHUJIEHEJIBIAOMIAN,XINGCHENGFENGLIMOREN。


HAIYOUYIZHONGSHILIYONGYASUOQITIBAPUTONGMOLIAO(HUOMOLIAOYULIUTIJIEZHIDEHUNHEWU)PENXIANGXUANZHUANDECHAOYINGMOLIAOSHALUNBIAOMIAN,YIKAOMOLIAODENENGLIANGDUISHALUNBIAOMIANJIEHEJICAILIAOJINXINGCHONGSHI,CONGERDADAOXIURUIDEMUDE。



2 激光修整

2.1 激光修整概述


乐投英超JIGUANGJUYOUDANSEXINGHAO、FANGXIANGXINGQIANG、NENGLIANGMIDUJIZHONG、XIANGGANXINGHAODENGYOUDIAN。JIAGONGYONGHONGWAIJIGUANGDEGUANGBOZHANGERGUANGZINENGLIANGXIAO,HONGWAIGUANGZIZUOYONGYUGUTIWUZHI,YIBANZHINENGJIFAQIZHENZHUANNENGJI,SHOUJIDIANZITONGGUOPENGZHUANGSHIJINGGEZHENDONG,DAOZHIBEIFUZHAOWUTIWENDUSHENGGAO,YIZHIRONGHUAHUOQIHUA, GAIBIANCAILIAODEZUZHIXINGTAI,CONGERCHANSHENGGEZHONGJIAGONGXIAOGUO。ZAIHONGWAIJIGUANGZUOYONGXIADEJIGUANGJIAGONGBENZHISHANGSHIYIGEREZUOYONGDEGUOCHENG


4 激光修整法原理图

2. 2 激光修整砂轮的研究现状及发展


乐投英超DADUOSHUXUEZHEDOUCAIYONGYAGJIGUANGQIDUISHALUNXIUZHENG,ZHEISHIYINWEIYAGJIGUANGQIBICOJIGUANGQIZAIXIUZHENGSHALUNSHANGGENGYOUYOUSHI。YAGJIGUANGQISHUCHUBOZHANGWEI1. 06µm,QIAQIAOSHICOJIGUANGQIBOZHANGDESHIFENZHIYI。BOZHANGJIAODUAN,DUIJUJIAO、GUANGXIANCHUANSHUHEJINSHUBIAOMIANDEXISHOUYOULI,JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNWEIJIGUANGDUISHALUNBIAOMIANCAILIAOSHAOSHIJIAGONG,GAODEMAICHONGFENGZHIGONGLVHEXISHOULVYOULIYUCAILIAOQUCHU。YAGJIGUANGYIYUGUANGXIANCHUANSHU,YAGJIGUANGQI,TIJIXIANGDUIXIAO,JIAGEBIANYI,YOULIYUGONGYEHUATUIGUANGYINGYONG。MAICHONGJIGUANGZHANKONGBIXIAO,SHAOSHISHIYOULIYUSANRE,REYINGXIANGXIAO,NENGJIANXIAODUISHAOSHIMOLIAOSUNSHANG,HUODEJIAOHAODEDIXINGDIMAO。


2. 3 激光修整砂轮的基本原理与特点


乐投英超JIGUANGJIAGONGJUYOUGAONENGLIANGMIDU、GAOZHURUSUDU、GAOJIAGONGXIAOLV、WUGONGJUSUNHAO、FEIJIECHU、YIKONGZHIHEWUGONGHAIDENGTEDIAN。


2. 3.1 JIGUANGXIURUIYUANLI:LIYONGGUANGXUEXITONGBAJIGUANGSHUJUJIAOCHENGJIXIAODEGUANGBAN,BINGZUOYONGYUSHALUNBIAOMIAN,KEZAIJIDUANDESHUNJIANNEISHISHALUNJUBUBIAOMIANDEJIEHEJICAILIAORONGHUA、QIHUA。ZAIXIANGTONGDEJIGUANGZUOYONGSHIJIANNEI,YOUYUCHAOYINGMOLIYUJIEHEJICAILIAODEWULIXINGNENGCHABIEHENDA,CHAOYINGMOLICAILIAODADAORONGDIANSUOXUYAODEJIGUANGGONGLVBIJIEHEJICAILIAOGAOJIGESHULIANGJI。TONGGUOKONGZHIJIGUANGJIAGONGCANSHU,KEYIYOUXUANZEXINGDIQUCHUJIEHEJICAILIAOLIANGDEDUOSHAO,ERBUSUNSHANGCHAOYINGMOLI,SHIMOLITUCHU,BINGZAISHALUNDEBIAOMIANXINGCHENGRONGXIEKONGJIAN,CONGERDADAOXIURUIDEMUDE,RUTU5SUOSHI。JINSHUJIEHEJIZHUYAOYIZHENGFAQIHUAHERONGRONGJIANSHEDEXINGSHIBEIQUCHU,SHAOLIANGRONGHUAHOUWEIJIANCHUDEJINSHUZAISHALUNBIAOMIANZHONGXINJIEJING, XINGCHENGJUBUGAODIAN; SHUZHIJIEHEJIZEYIQIHUAXINGSHIBEIQUCHU。


     (a)金属结合剂                            (b树脂结合剂

5砂轮结合剂的去除机理


乐投英超2.3.2 JIGUANGXIUZHENGYUANLI:ZAIJIGUANGXIURUIDEJICHUSHANG,JINYIBUTIGAOJIGUANGSHUDEGONGLVMIDU,JIGUANGGUANGSHUHUISHISHALUNBIAOMIANJUBUQUYUSHANGSHUNJIANCHANSHENGGENGGAODEWENDU。CIGAOWENBUJINHUISHISHALUNDEJIEHEJICAILIAORONGHUA、QIHUA,ERQIEHAIHUIZAISHALUNDEMOLISHANGRONGHUACHENG“WEIKENGHEN(WENLU)”,ZHEIJIUSHIXIUZHENG。JIGUANGXIUZHENGGUOCHENGBAOKUOJIGUANGXIURUIYUJIGUANGZHENGXINGLIANGGEBUFEN。JIGUANGZHENGXINGSHIZHIJIGUANGDUIMOLIDE“WEIJIAGONG”GUOCHENG。


2. 4 采用激光修整砂轮具有以下的优点:


乐投英超(1) JIGUANGZHAOSHEQUYUXIAO, KEYIJIESHENGSHALUNCAILIAO;


(2) FEIJIECHUJIAGONG,MEIYOUXIUZHENGGONGJUDEMOSUN,YOUSHIHEYUMOXUEGUOCHENGZHONGZAIXIANXIUZHENG;


乐投英超(3) HENRONGYIZAIMOCHUANGSHANGSHEJIJIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNZHUANGZHI,BAOKUOJIGUANGYUAN、GUANGXUEXITONGYUKONGZHIXITONG;


乐投英超(4) LENGQUEYEDECUNZAIBINGBUYANZHONGYINGXIANGJIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNDEXIAOGUO;


(5) JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNJUYOUXIUZHENGSUDUKUAI,GONGXIAOGAO,YISHIXIANZIDONGHUA;


(6) TONGGUOJIAOJUDEGAIBIAN,KEYIYOUXUANZEDICHUQUSHALUNSHANGZUSAIDEGONGJIANCAILIAO;


(7) ZENGDASHALUNBIAOMIANJIGUANGZUOYONGJIEHEJISHENDUKEYIYANZHANGSHALUNDESHOUMING;


乐投英超(8) JIGUANGREZUOYONGQUYUXIAO,NENGDEDAOJIAODADERONGXIEKONGJIANHEHESHIDEMOLITUCHUGAODU;


乐投英超(9) SHIYINGXINGGUANG,KESHIYINGGEZHONGJIEHEJISHALUNXIUZHENG。


2.5 砂轮激光修整技术效果的影响因素


乐投英超(1)JIGUANGQIZHONGLEIDEYINGXIANG


YAGJIGUANGSHUDEBOZHANGWEI1 .06μm, COJIGUANGSHUDEBOZHANGWEI10 .6μm。SHALUNCAILIAODUIGUANGDEXISHOUCHENGDUYUGUANGDEBOZHANGYOUGUANXI,YIBANBOZHANGDUANDE,CAILIAODUIGUANGDEXISHOUCHENGDUGAO。YINCI,MUQIANXIUZHENGSHALUNSHIYAG JIGUANGJIYONGDEJIAODUO,YAGJIGUANGJILINGYIGEYOUDIANSHITIJIXIAO,JIAGELVEDIYUTONGGONGLVCOJIGUANGJI,BIANYUSHEJICHENGXIAOXINGDEJIGUANGXIUZHENGZHUANGZHI。


(2) JIGUANGMOSHIDEYINGXIANG


乐投英超JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNSHI,TEBIESHIXIURUISHALUN,BINGBUXIWANGJIGUANGZUOYONGQUZHONGXINWENDUGUOGAO,ERBIANYUANWENDUGUODI, YINCIYICAIYONGDUOMOJIGUANG。


(3) JIGUANGMAICHONGZHANKONGBI、PINLVDEYINGXIANGCONGLILUNSHANGJIANG,ZHANKONGBIZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOJIGUANGMAICHONGFENGZHIHEDAOTONGSHIJIAN,BIRANHUIDUISAOMIAOXIAOGUOCHANSHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEYINGXIANG。SHIYANYEZHENGMINGLESUIZHEZHANKONGBIDEZENGDA,SHALUNPIANBIAOMIANZHUJIANBIANDECUCAO。ZHANKONGBIDA,ZEXIURUIXIAOGUOGENGJIA。YUZHANKONGBIXIANGBI,PINLVDEYINGXIANGGENGJIAXIANZHU。SUIZHEPINLVDEZENGGAO,SHALUNPIANDEBIAOMIANCUCAODUZHIJIANGDI。PINLVYUEGAO,XIURUIXIAOGUOYUECHA。


乐投英超(4) JIGUANGGONGLVDUISHALUNXIUZHENGXIAOGUODEYINGXIANGJIGUANGGONGLVSHIJIGUANGDEZHUCANSHUZHIYI。GUANGSHUDEGONGLVMIDU(W/m)SHIYINGXIANGSHALUNXIUZHENGXIAOGUOZUIZHIJIEDEYINSU。ZAISHALUNXIUZHENGZHONG,GUANGSHUDEGONGLVMIDUBIXUSHIZHONG。GONGLVMIDUGUOXIAOHUIYINGXIANGXIUZHENGXIAOLV,GONGLVMIDUGUODAHUIYINGXIANGMOLIDEXINGNENG。TONGGUOCOJIGUANGQISAOMIAOJINGANGSHISHALUNPIANFAXIAN:JIGUANGQIDEJIGUANGGONGLVZAI350~550WSHI,JINGANGSHISHALUNPIANDEYANSEZHUJIANBIANHEI;ZAIDADAO600WSHI,SHALUNPIANKAISHIRANSHAO。JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNSHIXUYAODEGONGLVMIDUYAOBIJIGUANGXIURUISHALUNSHIXUYAODEGONGLVMIDUDA。


乐投英超(5) JIGUANGXIUZHENGJINJISUDUDUISHALUNXIUZHENGXIAOGUODEYINGXIANG


JIGUANGXIUZHENGDEJINJISUDUJIANGYINGXIANGDAOSHALUNSHANGBIAOMIANCAILIAODUIJIGUANGSHUNENGLIANGXISHOUCHENGDU。JINJISUDUYUEXIAO,SHALUNSHANGBIAOMIANCAILIAODUIJIGUANGSHUNENGLIANGXISHOUDEYUECHONGFEN;JINJISUDUYUEDA,SHALUNSHANGBIAOMIANCAILIAODUIJIGUANGSHUNENGLIANGXISHOUDEYUEBUCHONGFEN。


(6)QITAJIGUANGCANSHUDEYINGXIANG:RUGUANGBANZHIJING、LIJIAOLIANGDENG, SHANGYOUDAIYANJIU。


乐投英超YISHANGSUOYOUJIGUANGCANSHUDUIXIUZHENGXIAOGUODEYINGXIANGKERENWEISHITONGGUOGONGLVMIDULAIJIANJIEYINGXIANGDE,JIANTU6。


6 激光参数影响示意图

2.6 激光修整砂轮技术研究的不足


乐投英超MUQIAN, JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNJISHUSHANGCHUYUSHIYANSHIYANJIUJIEDUAN,YAODADAOSHANGPINHUADETUIGUANGYINGYONGBIXUJIEJUEHAOYIXIAJIGEWENTI:


(1) JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNJISHUZHONGCANSHUDEYOUHUAWENTI, YIJIJIGUANGZHUCANSHUDUIXIUZHENGXIAOGUODEZONGHEYINGXIANGGUILV,RENGYOUDAIYUQUYANJIU, ZHEIYESHIMUQIANJIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNJISHUDEBUZU;


(2) JIEJUEHAOGANMOYUSHIMODECHAYIWENTI,DAIMOXUEYEYUBUDAIMOXUEYEDESHALUNZAIXIANXIUZHENGSUOZUNXUNDEGUILVYINGGAISHIYOUCHAYIDE, ZHEIYIDIANSHANGWUJINYIBUYANJIUDEZILIAO;


乐投英超(3) JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNJISHUZOUXIANGYINGYONGHUA,BIXUTONGSHIPEITAOYANJIUJISUANJIKONGZHIJISHU;


(4) JIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNJISHUDEKEKAOXINGYOUDAIQULUNZHENG、TIGAO;


(5) YOUYUJIGUANGQIDEJIAGEANGGUI,WEIHUBIJIAOKUNNAN,QIYEYONGHUDEZHICHILIBUGAO,YESHIJIGUANGXIUZHENGSHALUNJISHUTUIGUANGDEYIGENANTI。


3 结束语
       超硬磨料砂轮具有卓越的磨削性能,抗磨损能力远远超过普通磨料砂轮,超硬磨料砂轮磨削是磨削工业的发展趋势。但是超硬磨料砂轮在安装与使用钝化后的修整十分困难, 这已成为世界性的技术难题。本文所介绍的砂轮修整方法都是近年来超硬磨料修整技术的最新进展, 并在实际生产中得到验证的技术,这些修整技术对于充分发挥超硬磨料的性能, 确保加工质量和效率具有重要意义。激光修整砂轮技术具有很多独特的优点,使得将来的磨床将广泛使用这项技术。同时,激光修整砂轮技术将朝着检测、处理、控制一体化方向发展,这也是磨床实现智能化的一个重要步骤与巨大飞跃。

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