乐投英超

QIANHANJISHUYINGYONGYURENZAOJINGANGSHIGONGJUZHONG

发布时间:2016-08-09 15:28:29
1.技术在金刚石工具应用问题的提出

 金刚石的高硬度和优良物理机械性能使得金刚石工具成为加工各种坚硬材料不可缺少的有效工具。胎体金属基对金刚石的粘结性(胎体的包镶能力)是影响金刚石工具使用寿命和性能的主要因素之一。由于金刚石与一般金属和合金之间具有很高的界面能,致使金刚石颗粒不能为一般低熔点合金所浸润,粘结性极差,在传统的制造技术中,金刚石颗粒仅靠胎体冷缩后产生的机械夹持力镶嵌于胎体金属基中,而没有形成牢固的化学键结或冶金结合,导致金刚石颗粒在工作中易与胎体金属基分离,大大降低了金刚石工具的寿命及性能水平。大部分孕镶式工具中金刚石的利用率较低,大量昂贵的金刚石在工作中脱落流失于废屑之中。林增栋等率先利用金刚石表面金属化技术来赋予金刚石表面许多新的特性,如优良的导热导电性、热稳性好,改善其原有的理化性能,提高其对金属或合金溶液的浸润性等。 


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2.钎焊金刚石工具的研究现状

目前,用钎焊法制作金刚石(或立方氮化硼)工具已开始成为热点技术,但仅局限于单层工具,对于多层实现“孕镶”尚未见有成果发表。国外的钎焊技术研究始于20世纪80年代后期,但由于工作复杂至今仍停留在实验阶段,其应用也仅局限于单层工具;国内的高温钎焊技术研究起步较晚,与发达国家相比,研究的广度和深度远远不够,因而目前进展十分缓慢,但随着我国加入WTO,研究的步伐必然逐渐加速。


(1)国外高温钎焊金刚石工具的研究状况


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(2)国内高温钎焊金刚石工具的研究状况


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3.钎焊技术在金刚石工具应用中存在的问题

金刚石钎焊时存在着许多急需解决的难点:①要求钎料对金刚石和胎体有良好浸润性和结合强度;②钎焊材料及钎焊工艺的选择要保证金刚石的稳定性,以减少或避免钎料对金刚石的侵蚀;③由于金刚石和金属基体的热膨胀系数差异较大,因而焊接残余应力也较大,降低接头的强度;④钎料的熔点要高于金刚石工具的工作温度,所以应寻找熔点较低并与金刚石膨胀系数接近的金属(合金)材料作为钎料,再考虑加入某些活性元素以改善对金刚石的浸润性和亲和性,达到既能粘结金刚石又能满足胎体机械性能的目的。此外,金刚石表面金属化的实现方式、表面金属与钎料的匹配和选择、钎剂和气体介质的选择等关键技术还需进一步成熟和优化。


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4.结语

钎焊技术可实现金刚石、结合剂(钎焊合金材料)和金属基体界面化学冶金结合,具有较高的结合强度。由于界面上的结合强度高,所以仅需很薄的结合剂厚度就足以牢固地把持住磨粒,其裸露高度可达70%~80%,使磨料的利用更加充分,大大提高了工具的寿命和加工效率。与传统技术相比,金刚石工具的允许最大出刃值可增加50%以上,在工具的功耗不增或有所降低的条件下,单位体积上工件材料的金刚石耗量减少一半以上。与电镀工具相比,也显示了无可比拟的优势。总之,钎焊技术在金刚石工具制造过程中有着很好的发展前景,应尽快使这一技术实现产业化。

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